““The LORD your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your brothers—it is to him you shall listen—” (Deuteronomy 18:15)

“נָבִ֨יא מִקִּרְבְּךָ֤ מֵאַחֶ֙יךָ֙ כָּמֹ֔נִי יָקִ֥ים לְךָ֖ יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ אֵלָ֖יו תִּשְׁמָעֽוּן׃”
يقيم لك الرب الهك نبيا من وسطك من اخوتك مثلي. له تسمعون.

The text states that יהוה will raise up this prophet מִקִּרְבְּךָ֤ in fact, מֵאַחֶ֙יךָ֙ . Now the issue here is what does מִקִּרְבְּךָ֤ mean? Both the context and the root meaning point to "from amongst you". Who is the 'you'? Context shows it to be the Hebrews and מֵאַחֶ֙יךָ֙(from your brothers) and not a foreigner. We can see this to be true by looking earlier in the passage where is says: “When you come to the land that the LORD your God is giving you, and you possess it and dwell in it and then say, ‘I will set a king over me [Israel], like all the nations that are around me,’ you may indeed set a king over you whom the LORD your God will choose. One from among your brothers (מִקֶּ֣רֶב אַחֶ֗יךָ وسط اخوتك) you shall set as king over you. You may not put a foreigner over you, who is not your brother (לֹ֣א תוּכַ֗ל לָתֵ֤ת עָלֶ֙יךָ֙ אִ֣ישׁ נָכְרִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹֽא־אָחִ֖יךָ)." (Deut. 17:15)
فانك تجعل عليك ملكا الذي يختاره الرب الهك. من وسط اخوتك تجعل عليك ملكا. لا يحل لك ان تجعل عليك رجلا اجنبيا ليس هو اخاك.

So it is clear here that 'brother' refers to Hebrews and not foreigners and so that completely rules out Muhammad who was not a Jew but an Arab.

Some examples:

““If your brother (אָחִ֣יךָ), a Hebrew man (הָֽעִבְרִ֗י) or a Hebrew woman (הָֽעִבְרִיָּ֔ה), is sold to you, he shall serve you six years, and in the seventh year you shall let him go free from you.” (Deuteronomy 15:12)
اذا بيع لك اخوك العبراني او اختك العبرانية وخدمك ست سنين ففي السنة السابعة تطلقه حرا من عندك.

““The Levitical priests, all the tribe of Levi, shall have no portion or inheritance with Israel... They shall have no inheritance among their brothers (בְּקֶ֣רֶב אֶחָ֑יו)...” (Deuteronomy 18:1–2)

It is clear throughout the injeel that Jesus fulfilled the role of both Messiah and Prophet. The people certainly believed him to be the Prophet: “Who is this?” And the crowds said, “This is the prophet Jesus, from Nazareth of Galilee.”” (Matthew 21:10–11). When Jesus healed people “Fear seized them all, and they glorified God, saying, “A great prophet has arisen among us!” and “God has visited his people!”” (Luke 7:16). A Samaritan woman recognised that he was was prophet and Messiah: “The woman said to him, “Sir, I perceive that you are a prophet.” (John 4:19). The religious leaders knew that crowds believed him to be the prophet: “And although they were seeking to arrest him, they feared the crowds, because they held him to be a prophet.” (Matthew 21:46). There was some confusion as to Prophet and Messiah. Some thought there were two persons: “When they heard these words, some of the people said, “This really is the Prophet.” Others said, “This is the Christ.” But some said, “Is the Christ to come from Galilee?” (John 7:40–41). Whatever confusion there were those who recognised Jesus as the Prophet.

Jesus also believed himself to be Prophet. “And they took offense at him. But Jesus said to them, “A prophet is not without honor except in his hometown and in his own household.”” (Matthew 13:57). On his way to Jerusalem Jesus said: “Nevertheless, I must go on my way today and tomorrow and the day following, for it cannot be that a prophet should perish away from Jerusalem.’” (Luke 13:33). When Philip described Jesus he said “We have found him of whom Moses in the Law and also the prophets wrote, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.”” (John 1:45). So Jesus is the fulfillment of the Hebrew Scriptures. After his resurrection, Jesus appeared to some disciples and not recognising him, they said: “Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, a man who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people,” (Luke 24:19). Jesus then taught them: “Was it not necessary that the Christ should suffer these things and enter into his glory?” And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he interpreted to them in ALL the Scriptures the things concerning HIMSELF.” (Luke 24:26–27). He was indeed, the Prophet of Deuteronomy 18. A prophet speaks the words of God and the writer to the Hebrews said of Jesus:
“Long ago, at many times and in many ways, God spoke to our fathers by the prophets, but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world.” (Hebrews 1:1–2).

“προφήτην [Prophet] ἐκ τῶν ἀδελφῶν σου [out of your brothers] ὡς ἐμὲ ἀναστήσει [will arise] σοι κύριος ὁ θεός σου, αὐτοῦ ἀκούσεσθε” (Deuteronomy 18:15, LXX - Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures)

“... λέγοντες ὅτι προφήτης μέγας [a Great Prophet] ἠγέρθη [has arisen] ἐν ἡμῖν [among us] ...” (Luke 7:16).

So Moses says a prophet will arise among the Jews and Luke says that a prophet has arisen among the Jews and is identified as Jesus.